These actors performed in public playhouses roughly modeled on old innyards. The theaters were open to the air, had balconies surrounding the pit and stage, and held from two to three thousand people. Shakespeare learned his art by imitating these Oxford and Cambridge men, but for him they were a difficult group to join.
Literary criticism During his own lifetime and shortly afterward, Shakespeare enjoyed fame and considerable critical attention. Jonson objected when Shakespeare dramatized history extending over many years and moved his dramatic scene around from country to country, rather than focusing on 24 hours or so in a single location.
And in fact most productions of Shakespeare on the London stage during the Restoration did just that: Eighteenth century This critical view persisted into the 18th century as well.
Romantic critics For Romantic critics such as Samuel Taylor Coleridge in the early 19th century, Shakespeare deserved to be appreciated most of all for his creative genius and his spontaneity.
For Goethe in Germany as well, Shakespeare was a bard, a mystical seer. Most of all, Shakespeare was considered supreme as a creator of character.
Maurice Morgann wrote such character-based analyses as appear in his book An Essay on the Dramatic Character of Sir John Falstaffwhere Falstaff is envisaged as larger than life, a humane wit and humorist who is no coward or liar in fact but a player of inspired games.
In the theatre of the Romantic era, Shakespeare fared less well, but as an author he was much touted and even venerated. Philological research established a more reliable chronology of the work than had been hitherto available.
Edward Dowdenin his Shakspere: Elmer Edgar Stoll, in Art and Artifice in Shakespearestressed the ways in which the plays could be seen as constructs intimately connected with their historical environment.
Playacting depends on conventions, which must be understood in their historical context. Other scholarly studies examined censorship, the religious controversies of the Elizabethan era and how they affected playwriting, and the heritage of native medieval English drama.
Studies in the history of ideas have examined Elizabethan cosmology, astrology, philosophical ideas such as the Great Chain of Beingphysiological theories about the four bodily humour s, political theories of Machiavelli and others, the skepticism of Montaigne, and much more. Shakespeare on Theatre ; Sidebar: Shakespeare and the Liberties ; Sidebar: New Criticism As valuable as it is, historical criticism has not been without its opponents.
Knights, Derek Traversi, Robert Heilman, and many others, urging a more formalist approach to the poetry. Studies of imagery, rhetorical patterns, wordplay, and still more gave support to the movement.
At the commencement of the 21st century, close reading remained an acceptable approach to the Shakespearean text. New interpretive approaches Shakespeare criticism of the 20th and 21st centuries has seen an extraordinary flourishing of new schools of critical approach.
Psychological and psychoanalytic critics such as Ernest Jones have explored questions of character in terms of Oedipal complexes, narcissism, and psychotic behaviour or, more simply, in terms of the conflicting needs in any relationship for autonomy and dependence.
Mythological and archetypal criticism, especially in the influential work of Northrop Fryehas examined myths of vegetation having to do with the death and rebirth of nature as a basis for great cycles in the creative process.
Conversely, some criticism has pursued a vigorously iconoclastic line of interpretation. Jan Kott, writing in the disillusioning aftermath of World War II and from an eastern European perspective, reshaped Shakespeare as a dramatist of the absurd, skeptical, ridiculing, and antiauthoritarian.
For further discussion of later interpretations of Shakespeare, see Sidebar: Viewing Shakespeare on Film ; Sidebar: He also caught the imagination of many academic critics who were chafing at a modern political world increasingly caught up in image making and the various other manipulations of the powerful new media of television and electronic communication.
A number of the so-called New Historicists among them Stephen GreenblattStephen Orgel, and Richard Helgerson read avidly in cultural anthropologylearning from Clifford Geertz and others how to analyze literary production as a part of a cultural exchange through which a society fashions itself by means of its political ceremonials.
Mikhail Bakhtin was another dominant influence. In Britain the movement came to be known as Cultural Materialism; it was a first cousin to American New Historicism, though often with a more class-conscious and Marxist ideology.William Shakespeare, if that was his real name, was an obscure writer of Elizabethan entertainments about whom little is known.
Just kidding. But only partly.
Literary Analysis of Sonnet Essay Sample William Shakespeare is known for his ability to use literature, and to use his words in a way many meanings can be drawn. Because of the beauty of his work and many interpretations of his .
Other Literary Forms William Shakespeare in World Literature Many of Shakespeare’s plays exhibit an appreciation for the Aristotelean concept that virtuous action is a kind of golden.
Great ideas for other literary analysis essay prompts in non-fiction. The world of literature goes far beyond William Shakespeare and fiction in general. Here is a bunch of more literary analysis paper topics for other great works of literature.
Nemesis in William Shakespeare’s plays: Hamlet and Macbeth; Nemesis in George Martin’s A. William Shakespeare in World Literature Other Literary Forms Despite their imitative nature and many other faults, Shakespeare’s early plays—notably the Henry VI plays.
Shakespeare’s other history plays, King John (–96) and Henry VIII (), approach similar questions through material drawn from Foxe’s Actes and Monuments. The early comedies As You Like It: Gielgud, John Jaques philosophizes “All the world's a stage” (As You Like It, Act II, scene 7, line ), performed by John Gielgud; from a recording made about