Jeanne d'Arc of China: This snippet is for sons and daughters of China! Teenager girl Xun Guan breaking out of the Wancheng city to borrow the relief troops in the late Western Jinn dynasty; Liu-Shao-shi riding into the barbarian army to rescue her husband in the late Western Jinn dynasty; teenager girl Shen Yunying breaking into Zhang Xianzhong's rebels on the horseback to avenge on father's death in the late Ming dynasty.
The Russian Revolution Late tsarist Russia Sometime in the middle of the 19th century, Russia entered a phase of internal crisis that in would culminate in revolution. Its causes were not so much economic or social as political and cultural. For the sake of stability, tsarism insisted on rigid autocracy that effectively shut out the population from participation in government.
At the same time, to maintain its status as a great power, it promoted industrial development and higher educationwhich were inherently dynamic. The result was perpetual tension between government and society, especially its educated element, known as the intelligentsia.
Potentially destabilizing also was the refusal of the mass of Russian peasantryliving in communes, to acknowledge the principle of private property in land. In the late 19th century the political conflict pitted three protagonists: The tsar was absolute and unlimited in his authority, which was subject to neither constitutional restraints nor parliamentary institutions.
He ruled with the help of a bureaucratic caste, subject to no external controls and above the law, and the army, one of whose main tasks was maintaining internal order.
Imperial Russia developed to a greater extent than any contemporary country a powerful and ubiquitous security police. It was a crime to question the existing system or to organize for any purpose whatsoever without government permission. The system, which contained seeds of future totalitarianismwas nevertheless not rigidly enforced and was limited by the institution of private property.
The vast majority of Russian peasants lived in communes obshchinywhich held land in common and periodically redistributed it to member households to allow for changes in family size.
The communal organization, composed of heads of households, exercised great control over members. Communal peasants did not own their land but merely cultivated it for a period of time determined by local custom.
Under these conditions they had little opportunity to develop respect for private property or any of the other qualities necessary for citizenship.
Politically they tended toward primitive anarchism. To some extent this also held true for industrial workers, some two million strong at the turn of the century, most of whom came from the village. The intelligentsia was partly liberal, partly radical, but in either case unalterably opposed to the status quo.
Having met with no response, they adopted methods of terror, which culminated in in the assassination of Emperor Alexander II.
The government reacted with repressive measures that kept the revolutionaries at bay for the next two decades. In the meantime the field was left to liberal intellectuals, who in January formed the Union of Liberationa semilegal political body committed to the struggle for democracy. The oppositional groups received their chance in —05 when Russia became involved in a war with Japan.
The Union of Liberation, moving into the open, presented a program of fundamental political reforms. On October 17 October 30, New Stylefaced with a general strikeEmperor Nicholas II issued a manifesto that promised the country a legislative parliament.
The October Manifesto in effect ended the autocratic system. The following year Russia was given a constitution. Elections took place to a representative body, the State Dumawhich was empowered to initiate and veto legislative proposals.
The population received guarantees of fundamental civil liberties. Between and Russia was administered by the greatest statesman of the late imperial era, Pyotr Stolypin.
Stolypin both ruthlessly suppressed disorders and carried out extensive reforms. The most important of these were laws allowing peasants to withdraw from the commune and establish independent farmsteads.
Stolypin hoped to create a self-reliant yeomanry to act as a stabilizing force in the countryside. He also had other social and political reforms in mind.
These were frustrated by the hostility of the court as well as of the opposition parties. He was murdered by a revolutionary in The constitution of was frequently violated by both the government and the opposition.
The former misused its emergency clauses to adjourn the Duma and rule by decree. The latter, especially the radical parties, sabotaged the legislative process. Even so, in its last decade Russia enjoyed greater freedom than ever before.
It also enjoyed relative prosperity: Conditions in the countryside gradually improved, and in peasants owned or rented 90 percent of the arable land. The humiliating defeats that the Russian army suffered at the hands of the Germans, who expelled it from Poland, lowered the prestige of the monarchy further.
There were also unsubstantiated rumours that Empress Alexandra, a German by origin, betrayed military secrets to the enemy. The opposition, instead of rallying behind the crown, exploited its difficulties to wrest further powers so as to be in a position to take charge once the war was over.DAVID KOWALEWSKI China and the Soviet Union: A Comparative Model for Analysis* Any attempt to compare the land of the "inscrutable Chinese" with the country Churchill described as "a fiddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma" should generate humility in even the most proud.
China and the USSR Summary. At first, China's relations with the USSR were close – they had to be, since China was weak, and the USSR was the only friendly world power.
The author compares economic reform in China, , and political reform in the Soviet Union, He provides two sets of case studies, one set comparing the emergence of the private sector and the other the liberalization of the mass media in the two countries.
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) was the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet vetconnexx.com CPSU was the sole governing party of the Soviet Union until , when the Congress of People's Deputies modified Article 6 of the most recent Soviet constitution which had granted the CPSU a monopoly over the political system.
The party was founded in by the . In , when the Bolsheviks became the ruling party of Russia, they changed their organization’s name to the All-Russian Communist Party; it was renamed the All-Union Communist Party in after the founding of the U.S.S.R.
and finally to the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in The collapse of the Soviet Union in and the economic depression of China that lasted over 50 years, added to the failure of other communist governments, led to a large-scale abandonment of communism as a political theory.