The Greco-Bactrian king Demetrius I reigned c.
The Vale of Kashmir, predominantly populated by Muslims, has remained aloof from the main cultural currents of India. The ancient caves and temples of Kashmir, however, reveal a strong link with Indian culture at the beginning of the Common Era.
From southwest to northeast those zones consist of the plains, the foothills, the Pir Panjal Rangethe Vale of Kashmirthe Great Himalayas zone, the upper Indus River valley, and the Karakoram Range. The climate varies from alpine in the northeast to subtropical in the southwest. In the alpine area, average annual precipitation is about 3 inches 75 mmbut in the subtropical zone around Jammu rainfall amounts to about 45 inches 1, mm per year.
The entire region is prone to violent seismic activity, and light to moderate tremors are common. A strong earthquake centred in neighbouring Pakistani-administered Kashmir killed hundreds in Jammu and Kashmir state in Streams and settlements in the mountains of Jammu and Kashmir state, northern India.
The plains The narrow zone of plains landscape in the Jammu region is characterized by interlocking sandy alluvial fans that have been deposited by streams discharging from the foothills and by a much-dissected pediment eroded bedrock surface covered by loams and loess wind-deposited silt of Pleistocene age about 11, to 2, years old.
Precipitation is low, amounting to about 15 to 20 inches to mm per year, and it occurs mainly in the form of heavy but infrequent rain showers during the summer monsoon June to September. The countryside has been almost entirely denuded of trees, and thorn scrub and coarse grass are the dominant forms of vegetation.
The foothills The foothills of the Himalayasrising from about 2, to 7, feet to 2, metresform outer and inner zones. The outer zone consists of sandstones, clays, silts, and conglomerates, influenced by Himalayan folding movements and eroded to form long ridges and valleys called duns.
The inner zone consists of more-massive sedimentary rockincluding red sandstones of Miocene age roughly 5. River valleys are deeply incised and terraced, and faulting has produced a number of alluvium-filled basins, such as those surrounding Udhampur and Punch.
Precipitation increases with elevation, and the lower scrubland gives way to pine forests higher up. It has an average crest line of 12, feet 3, metreswith individual peaks rising to some 15, feet 4, metres. Consisting of an ancient rock core of granites, gneisses, quartz rocks, and slates, it has been subject to considerable uplift and fracturing and was heavily glaciated during the Pleistocene Epoch.
The range receives heavy precipitation in the forms of winter snowfall and summer rain and has extensive areas of pasture above the tree line. It is drained principally by the JhelumPunch, and Chenab rivers. The Vale of Kashmir The Vale of Kashmir is a deep asymmetrical basin lying between the Pir Panjal Range and the western end of the Great Himalayas at an average elevation of 5, feet 1, metres.
During Pleistocene times it was occupied at times by a body of water known as Lake Karewa; it is now filled by lacustrine still water sediments as well as alluvium deposited by the upper Jhelum River.
Soil and water conditions vary across the valley. The climate is characterized by annual precipitation of about 30 inches mmderived partially from the summer monsoon and partially from storms associated with winter low-pressure systems.
Snowfall often is accompanied by rain and sleet. Birch trees in the western Himalayas, Jammu and Kashmir state, northern India.
Ardea London Up to about 7, feet 2, metreswoodlands of deodar cedar, blue pine, walnut, willow, elm, and poplar occur. From 7, to 10, feet 3, metresconiferous forests with fir, pine, and spruce are found. From 10, to 12, feet 3, metresbirch is dominant, and above 12, feet there are meadows with rhododendrons and dwarf willows as well as honeysuckle.
The Great Himalayas zone Geologically complex and topographically immense, the Great Himalayas contain ranges with numerous peaks reaching elevations of 20, feet 6, metres or higher, between which lie deeply entrenched remote valleys.
The region was heavily glaciated during the Pleistocene Epoch, and remnant glaciers and snowfields are still present. The zone receives some rain from the southwest monsoon in the summer months—and the lower slopes are forested—but the mountains constitute a climatic divide, representing a transition from the monsoon climate of the Indian subcontinent to the dry continental climate of Central Asia.
Ladakh Range backgroundJammu and Kashmir state, India. In its upper reaches the river is flanked by gravel terraces; each tributary builds an alluvial fan out into the main valley.
The town of Leh stands on such a fan, 11, feet 3, metres above sea levelwith a climate characterized by an almost total lack of precipitation, by intense insolation exposure to sunlightand by great diurnal and annual ranges of temperature.
Life depends on meltwater from the surrounding mountains, and vegetation is alpine i. Those include K2 also called Mount Godwin Austen on the border of the Pakistani sector and one of the Chinese-administered enclaves, with an elevation of 28, feet 8, metres ; at least 30 other peaks exceed 24, feet 7, metres.
The range, which is still heavily glaciated, rises starkly from dry desolate plateaus that are characterized by extremes of temperature and shattered rock debris. There are many species of game birds, including vast numbers of migratory ducks.
People The cultural, ethnic, and linguistic composition of Jammu and Kashmir varies across the state by region. About two-thirds of the population adheres to Islama greater proportion than in any other Indian state; Hindus constitute most of the remaining third.
There also are small minorities of Sikhs and Buddhists. To the northwest, however, the proportion of Muslims increases, with Muslims making up a dominant majority in the area around the western town of Punch.
Kashmiris of the vale and highlands The Vale of Kashmirsurrounded by the highlands of the broader Kashmir region, always has had something of a unique character. The vast majority of the people are Muslims who speak Kashmiri or Urdu.Buddhism, budism, budhism, what is Buddhism, whatisbuddhism, types of Bhuddhism, typesofbuddhism, history of Buddhism, hystoryofbuddhism, Buddhism beliefs.
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