Civil Rights Movement in… Civil Rights Movement in the United States, political, legal, and social struggle by black Americans to gain full citizenship rights and to achieve racial equality. The civil rights movement was first and foremost a challenge to segregation, the system of laws and customs separating blacks and whites that whites used to control blacks after slavery was abolished in the s. During the civil rights movement, individuals and civil rights organizations challenged segregation and discrimination with a variety of activities, including protest marches, boycotts, and refusal to abide by segregation laws.
View all Overview By the s, African Americans began to mobilize in earnest against discrimination. As the photograph makes clear, even baseball legend Willie Mays was touched by housing discrimination.
They lived in the same culture as white Americans — as illustrated by the photographs of Oakland's McClymonds High School marching band and the group of young woman at an NAACP-sponsored social event — and they wanted to enjoy equal rights.
The Struggle for Civil Rights ss Civil rights groups demanded an end to segregation. They fought for equality in education, housing, and employment opportunities, and they made some headway.
White-collar and professional sector jobs began to open up for African Americans, as shown by the photograph of commercial artist Berry Weeks working at his draft board in But not all white Americans welcomed change. From the s through the s, movements for civil and social rights, equality, and justice swept the United States.
As the movement gained ground, however, it created a backlash of racism in many parts of the country, including California.
The photograph documenting a cross burning on the lawn of a black family in San Francisco's Ingleside district in shows clearly that this backlash was not limited to the Deep South.
Most civil rights protests of this time were peaceful, as illustrated by two photographs taken in San Francisco in Civil rights leaders like Martin Luther King, Jr. But others, such as Black Muslim leader Malcolm X, were less patient with the process, foreshadowing the harder-edged protests to come.
InPresident John F. By FebruaryMalcolm X had also been killed.
Later that year, anger and desperation fueled by years of discriminatory practices and police brutality exploded into violence in the Los Angeles African American neighborhood of Watts. The violence — triggered by the arrest of a black motorcyclist by white police — was the most destructive urban uprising in US history at that time.
The woman shown standing outside her apartment was just one of many people affected. The riots lasted a week, involved more than 10, people, and left at least 34 dead.
The violence shocked the nation and left the community in disarray. But over the next few years the citizens of Watts pulled together to rebuild their neighborhood. Parades demonstrated their newfound civic pride. One photograph shows former heavyweight boxing champion Muhammad Ali newspapers still called him Cassius Clay riding in a convertible as Grand Marshall of the Watts Summer Festival in ; another shows the Queen of the Watts Christmas Parade in Social Reform ss The violence in California and elsewhere in the country seemed to culminate with the assassination of civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr.
Memorials were held across the nation, including the one in the San Francisco Bay Area pictured here. A new subject, diversity — called "Negro History" in these early years — began to be taught in schools, as illustrated by the photograph taken at Manual Arts High School in Los Angeles.
At the same time, the ongoing Vietnam War reached into every community. This photograph shows San Francisco State College students waiting to hear if their draft number will be called in the draft lottery. After King's death the urgency for a different kind of protest emerged.The black protest activities of the s were encouraged by the expanding role of government in the economy and society.
During the administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt the federal government created federal programs, such as Social Security, . From the s through the s, movements for civil and social rights, equality, and justice swept the United States.
As the photograph of a civil rights rally at San Jose State College (now SJSU) shows, the movement wasn't limited to African Americans but also drew from the white community. Under the heading of “Civil society protests of the s to the s”, grade 12 learners examine the American Civil Rights and Black Power movements, the Women’s movement, and the various peace movements, of that period.
- The Emergence of Civil Rights in the 's The civil rights movement is the title given to the concerted effort to gain greater social, political and economic equality for black Americans which, it has been argued, emerged in its most recognisable form during the s.
Internal resistance to apartheid in South Africa originated from several independent sectors of South African society and alternatively took the form of social movements, Subsequent civil disobedience protests targeted curfews, Mass strikes and student demonstrations continued into the s. Erasmus student CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT ESSAY: Montgomery bus boycott Loughborough University May, In Marches on Congress, civil protests, even boycotts, “The Jim Crow regime was a major characteristic of American society in s .