Everything is connected by Michael Brown In this article Michael Brown explores the third of the five universal truths in his novel Finding the Field:
The narrative below tells you some of what happened after that. Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License applies to Author Choice Articles Introduction The more that I reflect on what I learned in science, the more it seems that I have been using over and over two basic concepts learned during my graduate studies at the University of Illinois.
They both are embedded in all that I did and do. This early book showed fascinating interconnected cycles of substrates, cofactors, and products that had an almost artistic appeal to me. In those days, the Krebs tricarboxylic acid cycle had just been through the controversial removal and replacement of citric acid as an intermediate.
Over the next sixty years, I sensed again and again a need to connect cause to consequence by identifying the intermediate mediators that cause the consequences. Training in biochemistry at the University of Illinois in those days included attending all of the courses and seminars required for organic chemists.
Memorable presentations by R. Corey filled blackboards with complicated paths of intermediates in an elegant total synthesis that led to some complex natural product. We had no doubt that connecting the dots was an important intellectual activity.
When studying for preliminary Everything is connected to everything else inBob Fisher and I laid large sheets of shelf paper on the floor to sketch out and integrate all the metabolic interrelationships for carbohydrates, amino acids, and lipids known at the time.
It was fun and a unique experience. Some years later, more professional versions with similar arrays of increasingly complex details were provided by companies that supply materials to biochemists. The charts increased in size and complexity over the next forty years. While visiting a laboratory recently, I saw an intimidating four-sheet display covered with hundreds of details in small print.
Quantitative Models of Reality Studies of enzyme catalysis at the beginning of the twentieth century created a controversial paradox, with some reaction rates dependent on substrate abundance first-order kinetics and others independent of substrate abundance zero-order kinetics.
Moving from a logically expected outcome to an apparently miraculous outcome was finally reconciled by introducing the concept of a saturable catalytic site. I was fascinated by the simplicity with which it reconciles paradoxical saturable hyperbolic dynamic catalytic events. As soon as I obtained my Ph.
Starting Research with Glycerolipids To begin academic research as an instructor in biochemistry at the University of Michigan Medical School Ann Arbor, Michigan inI picked plasmalogens, a minor phospholipid about which I and everyone else knew nearly nothing.
It was abundant in brain and heart, but it had no known biological role. Phospholipid metabolism was still in its infancy, and we spent much time developing methods for isolating, handling, and analyzing the diverse mixed lipid components that occur in Nature.
A fateful distraction occurred during some of our first experiments incorporating radioactive acetate and glycerol into tissue glycerolipids.
In the s, we knew that natural phospholipids had saturated and unsaturated 1 fatty acids esterified at different positions. Snake venom hydrolyzed the unsaturated acids, but their esterified location was not yet certain.
To determine the phospholipase selectivity, we used mild cleavage of the 1-alkenyl group from plasmalogen to prepare 1-hydroxyacylglycerophosphorylcholine. We then used the remodeling system of liver microsomes to acylate it with radioactive oleic acid.
The radiolabeled lipid did not release isotope when hydrolyzed with venom phospholipase. Thus, this phospholipase is specific for hydrolyzing the 2-acyl group.
This meant that natural phospholipids tend to have saturated and unsaturated fatty acids at the 1- and 2-positions, respectively.
This was heady stuff, letting us dream about biological consequences of acyltransferases, such as membrane fluidity and adaptation to environmental temperatures. In the early s, the Michigan biochemistry group had frequent evening faculty research seminars.
At one, Minor Coon advised me to develop a spectrophotometric assay to collect data that was easier and faster than the tedious isotope-monitored reactions. Many but not all acyltransferase events are active in the presence of sulfhydryl reagents, such as N-ethylmaleimide or p-chloromercuribenzoate.
The results gave no evidence for an anticipated preference to combine acyl chain pairs and form distinct phospholipid molecular species common in natural phospholipids e.
Also, selectivity was not affected by the ambient temperature confounding my friends, who thought lipid formation would adapt to environmental temperatures. We saw that the unsaturated acids accumulated at the 2-position of erythrocyte lecithins had a rational relationship to the relative abundance of non-esterified acids in plasma combined with transferase activity selectivities.
Liver lecithins also responded to dietary acids in a way that combined substrate abundance with acyltransferase selectivity.Linked has 4, ratings and reviews.
Trevor said: I liked this very much. The main thesis is that science up to fairly recently has been Platonic (w /5. Dec 23, · To begin academic research as an instructor in biochemistry at the University of Michigan Medical School (Ann Arbor, Michigan) in , I picked plasmalogens, a minor phospholipid about which I (and .
We are all connected to everything else and everything else is connected to us. Our past, present and future are all merged into one dot we call now. We are limited by forces and we experience separateness so we can understand The Whole from every angle and go beyond together, as unity.
@geoeverything [email protected] © Carl Lee | Everything is Connected to Everything Else. THE THIRD UNIVERSAL TRUTH: Everything is connected The third universal truth is that all things—seen and unseen—are connected. All things are different faces of Consciousness. The Field, the Great Spirit, the Source, the Tao, the One: these are all names for the same thing.
Exactly. So, energy arrives from somewhere else, picks . Of course, the planet itself is a great example of the literal term of everything is connected.
If you can read all of this answer you may understand that everything is truly connected to everything. It's like connections to Kevin Bacon. Let's say youre fresh out of .