The name "Bosnia" is derived from the Bosna River, which cuts through the region. Herzegovina takes its name from the word herceg, which designated the duke who ruled the southern part of the region until the Ottoman invasion in the fifteenth century. The two regions are culturally indistinguishable and for much of their history have been united under one government.
When the republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia declared independence in the region quickly became the central theater of fighting. The Serbs targeted Bosniak and Croatian civilians in a campaign of ethnic cleansing. The war in Bosnia claimed the lives of an estimatedpeople and displaced more than two million.
The height of the killing took place in July when 8, Bosniaks were killed in what became known as the Srebrenica genocide, the largest massacre in Europe after the Holocaust.
However, after his death inthe order he imposed began to unravel. The various ethnic groups and republics inside Yugoslavia sought independence, and as the end of the Cold War neared, the country spiraled out of control.
Serb nationalism was fueled as Slobodan Milosevic rose to power in With the help of Serbian separatists in Bosnia and Croatia, he stoked ethnic tensions by convincing Serbian populations that other ethnic groups posed a threat to their rights.
Ethnic Cleansing Begins Yugoslavia began to collapse in June when the republics of Slovenia and Croatia declared independence.
The Yugoslav army, largely composed of Serbs, invaded Croatia under the guise of trying to protect ethnic Serb populations there. They took the city of Vukovarcarrying out mass executions of hundreds of Croat men, burying them in mass graves.
This was the beginning of the ethnic cleansings that characterized the atrocities committed during the Yugoslav Wars. Bosnia came next in April Following their independence, Serbian forces accompanied by Bosnian Serbs attempted to ethnically cleanse the territory of the Bosniaks.
Snipers hid in the hills and shot at civilians as they tried to get food and water. Mass executions, concentration camps, rape and sexual violence, and forced displacement were all extremely prevalent.
Attempts at mediation by the European Union were unsuccessful and the United Nations UN refused to intervene, aside from providing limited troop convoys for humanitarian aid. Peacekeepers did not have the capabilities to truly protect the people seeking refuge there, and all except Sarajevo eventually fell under Serb control.
At this point, the enclave was protected by only Dutch peacekeepers armed with light fuel and expired ammunition — their force was so weak that a Dutch commander had reported that the unit was no longer militarily operational a month prior.
Srebrenica fell to the Serbs in one day. Mladic expelled 25, women and children from the town, while his forces tried to hunt down approximately 15, Bosniak men who had tried to escape to safety in central Bosnia.
Up to 3, were killedeither by gunshot or by decapitation, while trying to escape. Many Bosniaks sought refuge at a UN base in nearby Potocaribut were not safe there for long. Serb forces caught up with them by the afternoon and the next day, buses arrived at Potocari to take them away, again separating the children and women from the men.
Serb troops forced the Dutch peacekeepers to hand over their uniforms and helmets so that they could use them to lure civilians out of hiding and trick them into thinking they were headed to safety.
At the end of the four day massacre, up to 8, men and teenage boys had been killed, and many women were subject to torture, rape, and other forms of sexual violence.
Thousands were buried in mass graves. In order to conceal their crimes, Serb forces dug up the original graves of many victims and moved them across a large piece of territory.
There were clear indications that an attack at Srebrenica was being planned, yet the international community did not equip the peacekeeping forces there with the support necessary to protect the thousands who either lost their lives or were terrorized. The atrocities committed at Srebrenica are considered to be the worst on European soil after the Holocaust.
The Response While the war was widely covered in the press and individual policymakers at times took strong stands against human rights abuses in Bosnia, in general the UN, the European Union, the United States and Russia minimized the aggressive nature of the conflict and treated the fighting as a conflict between equal warring parties.
Response Up untilthe American government refused to take the lead onBosnia. During his campaign, Bill Clinton criticized the Bush administration for their lack of action, but when he was elected inhis Administration followed the same pattern.
InAmerican foreign policy toward Bosnia changed.
Despite all efforts to keep American troops out of Europe, he eventually realized that there was no effective way to end the war without it.Croats in Bosnia - Herzegovina, their history, culture and science.
In its latest attempt to harness the power of public relations to provide a sheen of respectability to its authoritarian government, the UAE is hosting the first ever World Tolerance Summit.
Tension was heightened by the First Balkan War of –13, in which Serbia expanded southward, driving Turkish forces out of Kosovo, Novi Pazar, and vetconnexx.com May the military governor of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Gen. Oskar Potiorek, declared a state of emergency, dissolved the parliament, closed down Serb cultural associations, and suspended the civil courts.
Bosnian conflict Bodies of people killed in April around Vitez, Bosnia and Herzegovina, during the Bosnian conflict. Courtesy of the ICTY Srebrenica massacre memorial Gravestones at the Srebrenica-Potočari Memorial Centre, opened in , in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Field Ethics of Journalism in Serbia, Bosnia, and Kosovo – syllabus (JOUR / 3 credits / 45 class hours) This course provides students with the necessary background in journalism ethics — both conceptual and experiential — to prepare them for the production of a major feature story in Serbia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and/or Kosovo.
Oct 07, · Bosnia 07 Oct GMT. Bosnians who lived through war show refugees kindness.
In a country with limited resources, Bosnians have been providing humanitarian assistance to migrants and refugees.