During the s, a majority of Filipino immigrating to the United States were not skilled. After independence inFilipino American numbers continued to grow. Immigration was reduced significantly during the s, except for those who served in the United States Navyand increased following immigration reform in the s. They are the country's second largest self-reported Asian ancestry group after Chinese Americans according to American Community Survey.
Many scholars invested in various fields, including queer theory, medicine and psychiatry, have investigated the concept of medicalized gender transgression in modern societies.
Namaste routinely points out, queer theorists rarely take into account the people whose lives they are placing under scrutiny. In other words, theory is often inaccessible to the very people to whom it pertains.
The lived experiences of many other transgenders, while obviously exhibiting individual differences, follow similar, specific stages, all of which have been incorporated and regulated by the field of medicine.
These professionals themselves often exhibit highly judgmental perspectives regarding transgenders. One primary purpose for the medicalized treatment of intersexual infants is precisely to cover up the very existence of intersexuals. The erasure of sexual ambiguity attempts to create a social space free of any individuals whose corporeal existences challenge the expected binary system of sex and gender.
Estimates regarding the frequency of intersexuality reflect the disparate attempts to define intersexuality. The standard protocol for doctors who negotiate the bodies of intersexed infants has been highly influenced by the work of Dr.
As Suzanne Kessler notes: Following the precedence established by Money, many medical personnel manipulate language and terminology in order to normalize intersexuality for the parents of intersexual children 4.
They then construct genitals appropriate to the assigned gender, and introduce hormones accordingly. This ideology is not a product of medical advances; rather the technological and medical advances are the products of this ideology.
Anne Fausto-Sterling provides insight into the medicalized institutional regime which she suggests is extremely invested in the ideologies perpetuating the myth of the existence of only two sexes.
The patriarchal values imbedded in the complex web of social institutions of modern Western societies encourage the medicalized control over intersexed individuals. Activist groups involved in transgender rights often include the rights of intersexed infants in their agendas.
Social reform activists such as Cheryl Chase have criticized Western feminist ideology for the impetuous denunciations of genital mutilation in non-Western countries, while seeming to be oblivious to similar practices in their own societies 7.
However many transsexuals choose, at some point in their lives, to invite medicalized alterations to their physical bodies for the purposes of recognizing their inner gender identity.
Some, but not all, transsexuals desire access to hormones which would presumably alter their physical bodies. Transsexuals often employ methods such as testosterone and estrogen injections or ingestions to achieve their desired corporeal modification 8.
Other non-surgical options available to transsexuals who wish to renegotiate their sexed bodies include electrolysis and speech therapy.
Hormone distribution is conservatively guarded by medical personnel, and options such as electrolysis and speech therapy are only available from licensed members of the medical community, provided the desired end result is of high quality.
A wide variety of surgical operations are available to transsexuals in modern Western societies. Technological advancements have allowed modern Western societies the capabilities to perform complex operations regarding sex reassignment, however, cultural attitudes have not evolved at the same pace as technological and medical developments.
Conservative social sentiments are illustrated by comments made by Danish psychiatrist Dr. Georg Sturup referring to the typical American attitude toward sex re-assignment surgery: While many transsexuals have been found to manipulate different areas of the medical community in order to circumvent some of these regulations, most transsexuals must adhere to the criteria set forth by the medical institutions governing their transition.
If they fail to comply, they risk losing any financial assistance in their transition, and very few people would be able to afford the extremely high costs of sex re-assignment surgery without aid. As Pat Califia points out:Jul 31, · An Online Tagalog - English Dictionary Learn Tagalog or Filipino Language for free.
Filipino cultural values are widely-held beliefs which make some activities, relationships, goals and feelings important to us Filipino people’s identity.
Filipino is usually described by outsiders as dark skinned, flat nosed, short people from Philippines who speak either in Tagalog or Taglish, and is a Christian. Praise for Filipino American Psychology: A Handbook ofTheory, Research, and Clinical Practice "Filipino American Psychology: A Handbook of Theory,Research, and Clinical Practice is destined to make a majorcontribution to the field of Asian American psychology and to thelarger field of multicultural psychology." —From the Foreword by Derald Wing Sue, PhD Professor ofPsychology .
“It is imperative that the medicalized control over transgenders’ bodies and psyches be subject to scrutiny.” The medicalization of trans-identity has been documented throughout history, although it is markedly more evident in the contemporary age of advancing technology and science.
Filipino Americans (Filipino: Mga Pilipinong Amerikano) are Americans of Filipino descent. The term Filipino American is sometimes shortened to Fil-Ams or Pinoy.
According to Filipino American historian Dawn Mabalon, the earliest appearance of the term Pinoy (feminine Pinay), was in a issue of the Filipino Student vetconnexx.com article that featured the terms, is titled, "Filipino Women in. Some one told me once that if the lips of a filipino are moving, he's lying and MAN it is true.
Having lived in their country for three years, i totally.