Recent years have seen an increasing awareness and understanding that all concussions involve some level of injury to the brain and that athletes suspected of having a concussion should be removed from play for further evaluation Aubry et al. The acknowledgment of the seriousness of sports-related concussions has initiated a culture change, as evidenced by campaigns to educate athletes, coaches, physicians, and parents of young athletes about concussion recognition and management e.
Print Overview of Concussion Concussion, also called concussion injury, closed head injury, or mild traumatic brain injury MTBIis a temporary brain injury that occurs as a result of head trauma. Motor vehicle accidents, falls, collisions during recreational sports, and child abuse are common causes for concussion.
Although concussions are not life threatening, any head injury can cause serious complications e. The brain controls all body functions and processes.
It is located inside the skull cranium and is surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid CSFwhich cushions and helps to protect the brain.
Concussion occurs when a blow, jolt, or other type of impact forces the brain against the skull and causes an injury that briefly impairs brain function. Types of Concussion Concussions can be categorized as simple or complex. Simple concussions, which are mild and relatively common in children and adolescents, gradually resolve within a week to 10 days.
As long as another head injury is not sustained, mild concussions usually do not result in complications or long-term health risks.
Complex concussions result in persistent symptoms and can affect brain function. Complex concussions increase the risk for complications, such as swelling or bleeding in the brain, seizures, and post-concussion syndrome e.
Severe concussions and multiple concussions are characterized as complex. Concussions also can be classified according to grade. Grade 1 concussion is mild; grade 2 is moderate; and grade 3 is severe.
Grade 1 concussion does not result in a loss of consciousness. People who sustain grade 1 concussions may be confused or dazed for a short time less than 15 minutes after the injury, but recover completely within 20 minutes. Grade 2 concussion does not result in a loss of consciousness, but symptoms e.
People who sustain grade 2 concussions may not remember the injury called post-traumatic amnesia.
Grade 3 concussion is the most severe type. A person who sustains a grade 3 concussion loses consciousness usually for a brief period of time and often does not remember what occurred just before or just after the injury.
Incidence and Prevalence of Concussions in Children According to the American Academy of Pediatrics AAPconcussion is one of the most common injuries requiring medical care in children and adolescents in the United States.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC reports that concussion and other types of traumatic brain injury TBI account for aboutemergency room visits each year in children 14 years of age and younger.
Boys sustain concussion injuries about twice as often as girls.Sports activities are a common cause of concussion, a form of mild traumatic brain injury. Symptoms include loss of consciousness, confusion, memory difficulties, and other signs of brain dysfunction.
Diagnosis is clinical with neuroimaging done as needed. Neuroimaging is not mandatory because there. Concussions are mild traumatic brain injuries (TBI) caused by a sudden bump, blow or jolt to the head that disrupts normal function of the brain, according to the CDC.
In a nationally representative sample of male and female high school athletes across 20 sports, diagnosed concussions were found to occur per 10, athlete exposures to a game or practice ; the highest rates were observed in boys football, ice hockey, .
Concussion Is A Mild Traumatic Brain Injury - Many sport officials have changed or added rules in order to protect the athletes and/or reduce the risk of concussions in . On the question of which activities should be regarded as “sports related,” the committee recognized that sports can be competitive or recreational, including everything from football and cheerleading to mountain climbing and extreme sports, and it further recognized that concussions can result from other types of physical activity that are.
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Among females, the largest number of sports and recreation related TBIs occurred during bicycling, playground activities, and horseback riding. 1 Among all sex, grade, and racial/ethnic subgroups, the odds of reporting a concussion increased significantly with the . Concussion is an injury associated with sports and is most often identified with boxing, football, ice hockey, and the martial arts. In addition, recent research has shown that concussion occurs in many different sports. In the decade of the s, concussion became a primary issue for discussion. Concussion Is A Mild Traumatic Brain Injury - Many sport officials have changed or added rules in order to protect the athletes and/or reduce the risk of concussions in .
what proportions occur during sports and recreation activities or during military training. (Sapien and Zwerdling, ), there are no published data on the occurrence of concussions during such training.